|| Little Love and Affection makes life Depression less ||
GENERAL APPROACHES TO TREATMENT OF DEPRESSION
- Before 1945, there were till today no depressants atleast reported . The upcoming treatments for depressive illness were either stimulants which are amphetamine , which often were ineffective and had the general affect of increasing energy and activity,or electroconvulsive therapy , which was effective buit has the disadvantages of terrifying and often endangering the patient .
- Not until the late 1945s were the upcominggeneration of antidepressants discovered (the TCA and MAOI) ,not by design but by chance.
- To treat schizophrenia the compound is chlorpromazine like , imipramine was recognized by Kuhn for its antidepressants properties ,thus becoming the forerunner for the tricyclic class of monoamine reuptake inhibitor antidepressants which proved to have impactful mood enhancing properties, becoming the forerunner of the MAOI. Isoniazid is involve in the treatment of diseases.
- These early studies still summarize much of our current knowledge regarding the therapeutic effects of antidepressants treatment.
UNIQUE PROPERTIES OF SPECIFIC TERTIARY AMINE TCA
- The diarylpropylidene amine moiety for amitriptyline make it affective to oxidation in presence of light therefore , its protected from light with the help of hydrochloride solution to avoid precipitation and ketone formation.
- It is amine which is tertiary dibenzocycloheptadieneTCA with a side chain as propylidene extending from the central carbocyclic ring .
- CLOMIPRAMINE: It is considered to be the big impactful antidepressants ever made. This dihydrodibenzepine TCA, with action on both NE and 5HT transporter was the last of the major TCA to come to market .Intially,the usa fda recarded it as another drug name as me too , and accordingly ,they did not license it . it is useful for the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder.
- DOXEPIN: IT IS TERTIARY AMINE DIBENZOXEPINE DERIVATIVE WITH AN OXYGEN REPLACING ONE OF THE ETYHLINE CARBONS IN THE BRIDGE . THE OXYGEN INTRODUCES ASYMETRY INTO THE TRICYCLIC RING SYSTEM , RESULTING IN THE FORMATION OF TWO ISOMERIC GEOMETRICALLY: E(TRANS) AND Z(CIS) .
ANXIETY AND ANXIETY DISORDER
- IT IS express AS A EXPECTATION which is apprehensive senses . IN desirable AMOUNTS AND AT perfect TIMES , ANXIETY IS HELPFUL (ANXIETY BEFORE THE EXAMINATION MAY CAUSE A STUDENT TO INITIATE AN APPROPIATE STUDY PLAN). it CAN BE DETLETERIOUS if anxiety exceeds .
It is either un match able situation if taken clinically or given in bulk amount. Nocturnal panic attacks is an example recently – episodes of extreme anxiety that arise out of one of the most physiological quiet times of the day .
The two major classes of GABA receptor are inotropic GABA and metabotropic GABA receptors .The important neurotransmitter which is The inhibitory in the CNS of mammal, GABA is long spread , with approximately one fourth of all synapses in the CNS utilizing this neurochemical for intercellular communication .
The GABA receptor is the gene member in which ligand gated ion channels superfamily that is known as cys loop family because of the presence of a cysteine loop in their domain which is N terminal.
Drugs used in the treatment of anxiety
- BENZODIAZEPINES: THEY ARE THE PROTOTYPIC ANTIANXIETY AGENTS. THEY TARGET THE GABA RECEPTOR , AND ALTHOUGH OTHER MOLECULAR TARGETS (SEROTONIN NEUROTRANSMITER) NOW ARE EXPLOITED FOR ANXIOLYTIC PHARMACOTHERAPY , NONE OF THE ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES HAS BEEN SHOWN TO MATCH EITHER THE EFFICACY OR THE RAPID ONSET OF THE BENZODIZEPINES .
- DIAZEPAM: It has half life of approximately 15 to 45 hours .As with chlordiazepoxide , N des methyl diazepam is the major metabolic product of diazepam .
- It is completely and fastly absorbed oral administration later . Maximum peak blood concentration occurs in 1.75hours , and elimination is slower .
Flurazepam: dihydrochloride salt is the product taken orally . It is taken as N dealkylated fastly to give fluro -2 derivative product as of N desmethyldiazepam , and it subsequently follows the similar metabolic pathway as chlordiazepoxide and diazepam.
Author || Zoya Amreen Lucknow